Why did the CBDRM intervention take place?
Following major floods that occurred in Jakarta in 2002, Action Contre la Faim (ACF) conducted a range of assessments and studies focused on floods and their impacts on the most vulnerable populations and their priority needs. Assessments were carried out to evaluate the humanitarian consequences of heavy flooding that affected the capital, causing loss in lives, diseases, displacement and substantial economic losses and damages to infrastructure and property. The three areas of intervention are prone to floods. While Kampung Melayu (KM) and Cipinang Besar Utara (CBU) are prone to slow onset flooding, Penjaringan faces the sea of Java and is flooded during high tides and from two rivers (Krukut and Muara). Heavy localized precipitation also caused flooding in the area due to an already appalling lack of drainage conditions. The flood situation in Penjaringan was aggravated recently due to damage to the sea-dyke built to prevent high tides entering the locality. As per the multi-hazard risk mapping completed by ACF, 85% of the total population in KM is prone to floods. In CBU 60% of the population is flood prone while in Penjaringan 30% of the population is flood prone.
The key activities for the project are relevant to the type of results. The following details the results and key activities undertaken during the project:
Result #1: The functioning of the local level disaster risk reduction system is strengthened in three Kelurahans
- Further strengthening of the SATLINMAS through trainings and restructuring. The restructuring of SATLINMAS and revision of SOPs were completed in a strategic way following three logical stages:
- SATLINMAS consultative meeting: These meetings were crucial to raising awareness of the Kelurahan Officials and Lurah regarding the importance of involving the community in DM related decision making processes.
- SATLINMAS strategic planning meetings were conducted to redefine the SATLINMAS structure and also to fine-tune the SOPs as per the new structure. Representatives of CBOs and community members were included in various task forces under the SATLINMAS to enhance their participation in flood response. The SATLINMAS members were also sensitized about different agencies responsible for flood response to ensure better coordination.
- Socialisation meetings were held to disseminate the new SATLINMAS structure and SOPs to the relevant stakeholders.
The kelurahans have formalized the revised structures, job descriptions, and SOP of the SATLINMAS.
- Improvement of early warning system and standard operating procedures (SOP). The SATLINMAS spearheaded local level DRR activities. SATLINMAS actively participated in the entire process of ERT training e.g., election of volunteers, provision of matching funds for the training. In CBU, the SATLINMAS actively participated in the flood simulation exercise. SATLINMAS have identified a wide range of mitigation projects for their respective Kelurahans and are currently lobbying with various DINAS for implementation of the projects. SATLINMAS in Kampung Melayu led the flood response in coordination with respective Dinas, RWs and RTs.
The SATLINMAS implemented already developed SOPs for the flood response, managed evacuees and coordinated with other departments/units from Dinas, RWs, RTs, LINMAS, Karang Taruna, PKK and community leaders to manage 7,000 flood affected households. The flood response in Kampung Melayu was well managed by the SATLINMAS. The SATLINMAS catered to the needs of 2,000 evacuees and 7,000 flood affected people and coordinated the flood response with support from respective DINAS, Civil Radio Association, Army etc.
- Facilitation of pre/post flood coordination meetings. The pre-flood meetings were held to review flood preparedness and improve coordination among stakeholders. The meetings were attended by members from SATLINMAS, youth organizations, Kelurahan Board, Pokdar Kantibmas, women groups, heads of RWs and RTs. All stakeholders attending the meeting were sensitized on the preparedness measures and their role in flood response.
Post flood meetings analysed the gaps in flood response that could be further improved. Flood readiness of the authorities improved a lot due to the simulation exercises. There is also greater clarity about the roles of responsibility of various stakeholders accountable for flood response.
- Deployment and management of emergency stock. Stocks for the Kelurahans were purchased following an assessment of the existing stocks and requirements. Concerned staff will be trained in maintenance and management of emergency equipment.
The emergency stock has been upgraded in all the 3 Kelurahans. Assessment of the stock has been done for all 3 Kelurahans. The SATLINMAS members conducted a needs assessment of the emergency stock on two criteria: 1) possible flood severity and 2) specific needs of various teams responsible for flood response e.g. search & rescue, first aid and pubic kitchen. A gap analysis was also done to find out what was available and what was needed. Based on the results of the gap analysis equipment will be purchased.
- Simulation/drill exercises. The early warning dissemination mechanism and standard operating procedures have been established and tested through a simulation exercise. Led by the SATLINMAS, simulation exercises were held in the three Kelurahans separately. Around 250 to 300 people participated in each flood simulation exercises. The exercises took place near Ciliwung River in Kampung Melayu, Cipinang River in Cipinang Besar Utara, and Ancol Beach in Penjaringan.
- Updating of data base and hazard maps. Consultation were held with PMI in order to simplify the risk mapping procedure. Kelurahan staff and community volunteers were trained by experts from PMI in multi-hazard risk mapping and updating using ARCGIS as the software. The hazard maps were handed over to the “Kerta Kayu” at the end of the project.
The existing risk maps were disseminated and used to support the communities understand their vulnerabilities and the risks they are exposed to. This will help the communities identify possible preparedness and mitigation measures required in their area.
Result #2: Risk Knowledge at the local levels (institutions and populations) is heightened in three Kelurahans
- Public Awareness Campaigns. The three main ways in which public awareness campaigns were implemented was mass door-to-door campaigns, radio shows and IEC material distribution. A major awareness campaign was carried out following a door-to-door logic. Various methods were employed to enhance flood awareness of the targeted population including recitation of folk songs, distribution of leaflets, pamphlets, etc. During this campaign, different awareness-raising techniques were used according to the target area’s characteristics and preliminary discussions with community stakeholders: direct involvement in DRR-related activities such as a cleaning campaign (Kampung Melayu), and message delivery using traditional media (dangdut festival in CBU, street musician in Penjaringan).
- Production of IEC materials and distributions. The following IEC materials were produced:
- Leaflets depicting various causes of flooding.
- Pamphlets on causes of flooding and tidal floods, and DOs and DON’Ts during different phases (before, during & after) of the flood.
- Pocket Guide on causes of floods, what to do during floods, and whom to call/where to go to.
- Ready Reckoner.
- Brochures on floods.
- A short documentary was prepared by ACF titled under the previous project “When Flood is coming!”
- Folk songs have been composed on flood preparedness.
All IEC materials were first designed by ACF and then field tested in the community. There were a number of inputs from the community for visual materials about the use of pictures, suggestions for more readable fonts, and some changes in the design.
- Radio Campaigns. Radio talk-shows addressing different flood related issues were broadcasted
- Door-to-door socialization/awareness raising campaigns. An intensive door-to-door campaign targeting the most vulnerable households was conducted. Events and activities were organised and IEC materials distributed. Selected documentaries/IEC materials already developed by different agencies/organisations were also disseminated in the targeted communities during the campaign. The campaign was tailed according to the communities through participatory meetings.
- School DRR education. DRR awareness of the students in the targeted schools has been enhanced through different school-based activities such as drawing competitions, essay and debate competition, conducting movie shows, interactive discussions and lecture series, conducting DRR camps, school cross-visit, and school-based simulations.
- Training of Trainers. Training of Trainers for teachers were conducted for schools – ACF partnered with the Curriculum Development Center in carrying out the training for trainers by using various tools to plan and implement DRR activities at school.
- Thematic group discussion and presentation. Thematic group discussions and presentations were held in the targeted schools under the school DRR component. The “Essay and Debate Competition” encouraged students and teachers to conduct research, observation and interviews related to the topic of Capacity of Schools Towards Flood Disaster. For elementary schools, the ACF team used child-friendly materials for interactive discussion. Documentary on DRR were also diffused among children.
- Contingency plan for schools. Schools have participated in workshops on how to mainstream DRR into school subjects and supported by the Indonesian Science and Research Agency and the Curriculum Center.
- School level emergency response teams and simulation/drill & IEC activities. DRR camps were organized in the most vulnerable schools for the targeted areas. They were trained in school disaster risk reduction and designing contingency planning to increase their understanding of risk and contribute to strengthening their school capacity in identifying hazard, risk, and responding to disasters. During the camp BASARNAS (National Search and Rescue Body) along with PMI (Indonesian Red Cross) delivered SAR and first aid training.
- Cross visits. School cross visits were conducted for students and teachers who participated in DRR school camp.
- Apprenticeship training. The activity was focused on building the capacity of local NGOs. The activity combined learning sessions, discussion, field work, observation, and report writing tasks covering topics such as the Hyogo Framework for Action and the Indonesian DM Act No.24/2007, Disaster Management (DM) actors in Indonesia, DM tools, disaster risk reduction initiatives nationally and globally, climate change, DRR educational campaigns and capacity building, risk mapping and resource mapping, visits to several organizations, and cross-cutting themes of culture sensitivity, gender, and vulnerability contexts.
- Transparency in project reporting. Newsletters were designed and published. The newsletters provided information on what had been the work of ACF and SATLINMAS/STPB as local initiatives in DM, promoting local actions, and provided transparency to various project stakeholders including the kelurahans, government offices, ACF’s partners including MPBI, LIPI, BMKG, BASARNAS, and other NGOs.
Result #3: Partnership/Coordination between local, district and provincial authorities and support to local-level DRR initiatives are provided
- Project presentation to DM authorities at National, Provincial, District and Municipality level. Stakeholders such as BNPB & MPBI were targeted at the national level, BAPEDA & SATKORLAK at the provincial level, Various DINAS (Dinas Trantib/ Security Agency, Dinas Sosial/ Social Agency, Dinas Kebakaran/ Fire Agency) and Puskesmas at the sub-district level, SATLINMAS, Lurah & CBOs at Kelurahan level and, international organizations like UN-OCHA (acting as the coordinating agency for the flood management in Jakarta), World Bank & World Meteorological Organization (WMO).
- Training workshops on disaster management and dissemination of DM bill. The socialisation of “Disability Issues in DRR” has been completed though a workshop. A workshop was held to socialise the DM Act and raise awareness of the provincial and local authorities about their DM roles and responsibilities. Invited to the workshop were Camat Jatinegara (District Head), Vice Camat Penjaringan, and also local government officials from three kelurahans. The workshop talked about the importance of disaster management in Indonesia, especially in anticipating flooding in Jakarta. The ways of DM could be planned out strategically and according to government’s budget line. The most important part of DM is that local government, kelurahan and kecamatan are actively involved mainstreaming disaster risk reduction into development programs. A resource person from MPBI was present to enlighten participants on the DM Act and the application at the community and local government levels.
- Inter Kelurahans cross visit and meetings. A number of inter-kelurahan cross visits have happened during various activities in the three project areas under the project. During the workshops and training programmes, a couple of grassroots-level issues were discussed, analysed and good practices existing in one area were learnt by the others for future actions.
A cross visit was organised for the youth group from Raya Buaya Kelurahan to visit Kampung Melayu in the month of March. Rawa Buaya community members are supported by Mercy Corps, an INGO that has been working on flood DRR.
- Support to local level DRR initiatives. The Kelurahan Office, SATLINMAS and Dekel (Kelurahan Chambers) through various focus group discussions have identified potential agencies that can support local level DRR projects.
- Workshop on ‘Public Private Partnership (PPP) and fund raising’ and corporate sector support for local DRR initiatives. ACF partnered with the Indonesia Center for Sustainable Development (ICSD) for linking up the CSO with potential funding sources. A workshop on Public-Private Partnerships was organized in cooperation with this centre. The workshop aimed to link SATLINMAS/STPB and Kelurahans with potential private donors. A number of resource persons from reputable companies including Unilever attended the workshop.
Who funded it?
The project was funded by the Disaster Preparedness ECHO programme (DIPECHO)
What other actors were involved?
Various stakeholders were involved throughout the process – this include the following:
- Community leaders (Head of RWs/RTs)
- Community-based organisations (Women Group and Youth Groups) & teachers and students
- Local Authorities (Lurah, Vice of Lurah, members of SATLINMAS, FORMAPEL and LINMAS)
- DM staff at the sub-district, municipal and provincial levels
- BAPEDA & DINAS
- Project partners (Indonesian Red Cross, MPBI and other International NGOs )
How long was the project for? When did it end?
The project was conducted for a total of 16 months. It began in July 2008 and ended in November 2009.