A catastrophic eruption of the Kelud Volcano in East Java occurred in 1919, where the hot cloud spread reached 37.5 kilometers from its core and took 5,110 victims. In 1951, 1966, and 1990, small eruptions occurred. However, volcanologists concluded that the Kelud Volcano could potentially have a catastrophic eruption. Meanwhile, communities around Kelud were unable to learn from the 1919 experience and subsequent eruptions. Disaster risk awareness among the communities were low when volcanic activity of Kelud was raised in 2007. Risk awareness efforts were needed, especially in the vulnerable area around the Kelud Volcano in order to enable the at-risk communities to possess sufficient knowledge on eruption danger, have risk perception, and to take awareness steps.
Activities of the Indonesian Community of Environmentalist (Komunitas Pencinta Alam Pemerhati Lingkungan, KAPPALA) and Study Center for Disaster Research and Management (Pusat Studi Manajemen Bencana, PSMB) of the University of Pembangunan Nasional “Veteran” Yogyakarta (UPNYK) were supported by Oxfam GB (Great Britain) Indonesia in 2007, DIP ECHO, Trocaire in 2009-2011 and PT Sampoerna in 2012. Project activities involved 62 villages in Kediri, Blitar and Malang regency, by involving the Local Agency of Disaster Management (Badan Penanggulangan Bencana Daerah, BPBD) of East Java, the Centre for Volcanology and the Geological Hazard Mitigation (Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi, PVMBG) Geological Agency. JANGKAR Kelud is a local organisation for disaster management, which is established in the process of CBDRM and later acted as mandate holder. Project activities started in 2012 and continue to date. Activities were implemented in the form of training, risk awareness through participatory risk assessment, technical training on preparedness and early warning systems, and organisation and advocacy within the vulnerable area of the Kelud Volcano in the Malang, Kediri and Blitar regencies. This work aimed to reveal the success of residents in eruption-prone area of Kelud Volcano, as well as to obtain another success in applying community-based early warning systems. This research has been implemented through documentaries and explorative studies on community practice and relevant parties both before and after emergencies. Document studies have been implemented by rereading the documents from programs which were implemented together with the people in disaster-prone areas since between 2007 and 2014. An explorative study was done through direct interviews and conducting questionnaires with 90 people in disaster-prone areas and representative team members in Malang, Blitar, and Kediri regencies as representatives.
If we look back to the increase in the status of Kelud until the eruption that produced the lava dome in 2007, there has been evacuation of people to places that are considered safe by the government. The evacuation tends to last from 3 to 7 days. The process of evacuation of citizens and the handling of the evacuation place results in many stories among both the community and the government. When Kelud’s status increase in 2007, KAPPALA, with PSMB UPNYK and Oxfam GB had the opportunity to enter Sugihwaras and Sempu disaster-prone villages in Kediri District Penataran villages and Sumberasri in Blitar District. From the discussion with the people, it was found that the community members had enhanced preparedness by building shelters from woven bamboo in front of their respective houses which will be used to take shelter in case of eruption; the community will not leave their house because after the eruption is complete they will immediately clean the roof of the material so that the roof load is not too heavy. Based on the story of the people, KAPPALA took the initiative to make bamboo ladders, roof cleaning tools in the form of coconut shells which are given long stalks, and head covers of woven bamboo (Javanese: capil) which can be used by residents to clean roofs when Kelud spews material.
In the middle of 2008, KAPPALA together with PSMB UPNVY, Oxfam GB and Troicare built preparedness in the Kelud area. DRR activities are new activities for the community. Since the 2007 eruption there has been no disaster activity in the community. Preparedness activities include:
- District level dissemination activities were carried out in three districts of Kediri, Blitar and Malang. The purpose of these activities was to submit an activity plan that will be implemented around Kelud and ask for input in the implementation process.
- Village level dissemination was carried out in 10 villages, namely Sumberasri, Penataran, Candirejo villages in Blitar District; Sempu, Sugihwaras, Sepawon, and Besowo villages in Kediri Regency; and the villages of Pondokagung, Ngantru, Pandansari in Malang Regency. These activities included sharing the state of Kelud after the 2007 eruption along with planning the activities to be done. To encourage public awareness, KAPPALA involved PASAG Merapi from the Merapi area to tell what has been done in Merapi in maintaining the preparedness for living in disaster prone areas.
Efforts to build synergies were conducted through district-level workshops, series of trainings and capacity-building and drafting the working groups of each district.
- District-level workshops were carried out in each district, in the form of the first meeting between the community and government representatives. The discussion was surrounded the handling of Kelud in the aftermath of the 2007. From this activity it was agreed who should be involved in the upcoming activities in terms of representatives from the government and from the community, as well as the process of delivering invitations.
- A series of trainings and capacity-building activities were implemented, including capacity-building on disaster management, emergency management, gender in DRR, training of contingency planning and mapping of digitisation were conducted jointly between government and community representatives. The training aimed to build synergy in disaster reduction activities between the government and society. The process of building synergy between the community and the government was also done outside the training room by exercising together. This activity was carried out in the hope of removing the partition between government and society.
- Working groups were established in each district to strengthen the relationship between the community and the government and scheduling meetings to formulate a work plan that can be done.
Capacity-building processes and awareness-raising on disaster risk management in the community started in 12 villages with local trainers at the village level. Facilitators of DRR actors were selected to encourage public awareness. PASAG Merapi was asked to be a facilitator and also a motivator of Kelud residents to conduct community-based disaster risk management (CBDRM) activities. PMI (Indonesia Red Cross) is requested to run First Aid trainings (Pertolongan Penderita Gawat Darurat, PPGD) in cooperation with the Community Medical Service (Pusat Kesehatan Masyarakat, Puskesmas) and community, along with other elements in DRR activities. These trainings resulted in the risk analysis document, evacuation plan, Standard Operation Procedure (SOP), mapping and formation of a village alert team. Work at the community level continues through the establishment of local facilitators, developing villages, integrating DRR materials in schools, and building models and props, with the following details:
- Local facilitators. The knowledge spreader of CBDRM becomes an option to speed up and simplify the process. Representatives of village alert teams are trained to become facilitators of knowledge spreaders in new villages with CBDRM and PPGD materials.
- Developing a village. The training was conducted in villages around Kelud, facilitated by members of the village alert team who had trained as facilitator. From the initial 12 villages, the village alert team developed into 36 villages. In addition to the new villages, local coaching was done in the old villages in order to increase the alert team.
- Integrate DRR materials into school subjects. To become a disaster-prone area is not enough with the activities in the village; all parties in the Kelud area need to be involved in DRR training, including schools and teachers in order to better analyse their school risks and prepare preparedness plans as well as integrate DRR into class subjects.
- Developing properties in children’s DRR. Dolls become one of the tools for delivering DRR materials to children. Kindergarten and elementary school teachers practised together, playing puppets as a method to convey DRR to their students.
- Compile modules. By practising and recording what has been done, the facilitators wrote their experiences in facilitating the local training into a joint module. This can be used as guidance and reading materials for other people to do local training.